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18 octobre 2017

Evolution of drift robustness in small populations [Nature Communications]

Keywords : computer modelling, evolutionary theory

Most mutations are deleterious and cause a reduction in population fitness known as the mutational load. In small populations, weakened selection against slightly-deleterious mutations results in an additional fitness reduction. Many studies have established that populations can evolve a reduced mutational load by evolving mutational robustness, but it is uncertain whether small populations can evolve a reduced susceptibility to drift-related fitness declines. Here, using mathematical modeling and digital experimental evolution, we show that small populations do evolve a reduced vulnerability to drift, or ‘drift robustness’. (...)

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18 octobre 2017

Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Keywords : environmental impact, forest ecology

Mining poses significant and potentially underestimated risks to tropical forests worldwide. In Brazil’s Amazon, mining drives deforestation far beyond operational lease boundaries, yet the full extent of these impacts is unknown and thus neglected in environmental licensing. Here we quantify mining-induced deforestation and investigate the aspects of mining operations, which most likely contribute. We find mining significantly increased Amazon forest loss up to 70 km beyond mining lease boundaries, causing 11,670 km2 of deforestation between 2005 and 2015. This extent represents 9% of all Amazon forest loss during this time and 12 times more deforestation than occurred within mining leases alone.(...)

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17 octobre 2017

Soil biota contributions to soil aggregation [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Humankind depends on the sustainability of soils for its survival and well-being. Threatened by a rapidly changing world, our soils suffer from degradation and biodiversity loss, making it increasingly important to understand the role of soil biodiversity in soil aggregation—a key parameter for soil sustainability. Here, we provide evidence of the contribution of soil biota to soil aggregation on macro- and microaggregate scales, and evaluate how specific traits, soil biota groups and species interactions contribute to this. We conducted a global meta-analysis comprising 279 soil biota species.(...)

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17 octobre 2017

Ecological and evolutionary legacy of megafauna extinctions [Biological Reviews]

For hundreds of millions of years, large vertebrates (megafauna) have inhabited most of the ecosystems on our planet. During the late Quaternary, notably during the Late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, Earth experienced a rapid extinction of large, terrestrial vertebrates. While much attention has been paid to understanding the causes of this massive megafauna extinction, less attention has been given to understanding the impacts of loss of megafauna on other organisms with whom they interacted. In this review, we discuss how the loss of megafauna disrupted and reshaped ecological interactions, and explore the ecological consequences of the ongoing decline of large vertebrates. Numerous late Quaternary extinct species of predators, parasites, commensals and mutualistic partners were associated with megafauna and were probably lost due to their strict dependence upon them (co-extinctions).(...)

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16 octobre 2017

Warm northern river temperatures increase post-exercise fatigue in an Arctic migratory salmonid but not in a temperate relative [Functional Ecology]

Keywords : Arctic char, Arctic climate change, northern range expansion ; salmonid migration ; repeat swimming performance, temperature tolerance, oxygen uptake

1.The arctic is warming at twice the global average rate ; how native and non-native anadromous fishes will respond remains largely unknown. Some native arctic salmonids are already experiencing warm (>21°C), physically challenging migratory river conditions and large diurnal temperature fluctuations (>10°C).

2.We conducted field and laboratory experiments to determine how these extreme conditions may affect the capacity for migration in arctic and temperate salmonids.

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