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13 February 2018

On the brink of extinction: two new species of Anomaloglossus from French Guiana and amended definitions of Anomaloglossus degranvillei and A. surinamensis (Anura: Aromobatidae)

Antoine Fouquet, Jean-Pierre Vacher

A large portion of the amphibian species occurring in Amazonia remains undescribed. A recent study on species delineation in Anomaloglossus, a genus endemic to the Guiana Shield, demonstrated the existence of two undescribed species previously identified as A. degranvillei, which we describe herein. In addition to divergence at the molecular level, these two new taxa are also distinguished by subtle morphological characters and substantial differences in the advertisement calls (note length, dominant frequency, note structure).(...)

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9 February 2018

A global analysis of management capacity and ecological outcomes in terrestrial protected areas [Conservation Letters]

Keywords : living planet database, management effectiveness tracking tool (METT), protected area management effectiveness (PAME), vertebrate population trends, world database on protected areas (WDPA)

Protecting important sites is a key strategy for halting the loss of biodiversity. However, our understanding of the relationship between management inputs and biodiversity outcomes in protected areas (PAs) remains weak. Here, we examine biodiversity outcomes using species population trends in PAs derived from the Living Planet Database in relation to management data derived from the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) database for 217 population time-series from 73 PAs.(...)

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9 February 2018

The relative importance of plant intraspecific diversity in structuring arthropod communities: a meta-analysis [Functional Ecology]

Keywords : associational resistance, biodiversity, community genetics, genetic diversity; herbivory, natural enemies, plant-insect interactions, tritrophic interactions

1.Understanding how plant diversity influences higher trophic levels is important for predicting the consequences of global biodiversity loss. While early studies have focused on the effects of plant species richness, more recently a growing number of experiments have explored the effects of plant intraspecific diversity by manipulating the genotypic richness of plant communities.
2.By combining 162 estimates of effect size from 60 experimental studies, we examined the effects of plant genotypic richness on arthropods, one of the most diverse and abundant taxa which play a crucial role in many ecosystem processes and services. We have also compared the effects of plant genetic and species diversity on arthropods when both were manipulated within the same study.(...)

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9 February 2018

Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes [Nature Communications]

Keywords : antimicrobial resistance, bacterial genetics, molecular evolution

Elucidating the factors governing the functional compatibility of horizontally transferred genes is important to understand bacterial evolution, including the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and to successfully engineer biological systems. In silico efforts and work using single-gene libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts.(...)

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9 February 2018

Species co-occurrence analysis predicts management outcomes for multiple threats [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Mitigating the impacts of global anthropogenic change on species is conservation’s greatest challenge. Forecasting the effects of actions to mitigate threats is hampered by incomplete information on species’ responses. We develop an approach to predict community restructuring under threat management, which combines models of responses to threats with network analyses of species co-occurrence. We discover that contributions by species to network co-occurrence predict their recovery under reduction of multiple threats.(...)

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