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6 June 2017

The conquering of North America: dated phylogenetic and biogeographic inference of migratory behavior in bee hummingbirds [BMC Evolutionary Biology ]

Keywords : bee hummingbirds, biogeography, Mellisugini, molecular phylogeny, migration, North America

Geographical and temporal patterns of diversification in bee hummingbirds (Mellisugini) were assessed with respect to the evolution of migration, critical for colonization of North America. We generated a dated multilocus phylogeny of the Mellisugini based on a dense sampling using Bayesian inference, maximum-likelihood and maximum parsimony methods, and reconstructed the ancestral states of distributional areas in a Bayesian framework and migratory behavior using maximum parsimony, maximum-likelihood and re-rooting methods.(...)

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5 June 2017

Large reorganizations in butterfly communities during an extreme weather event [Ecography]

Drought events are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude, which may alter the composition of ecological communities. Using a functional community metric that describes abundance, life history traits and conservation status, based upon Grime’s CSR (Competitive – Stress tolerant – Ruderal) scheme, we investigated how British butterfly communities changed during an extreme drought in 1995.(...)

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3 June 2017

Prey-driven control of predator assemblages: zooplankton abundance drives aquatic beetle colonization [Ecology]

Keywords : community assembly, Dytiscidae, food web, habitat selection, Hydrophilidae, predator-prey, trophic cascade, zooplankton

Trophic interactions are critical determinants of community structure and ecosystem function. In freshwater habitats, top predators are traditionally viewed as drivers of ecosystem structure, shaping populations of consumers and primary producers. The temporary nature of small water bodies makes them dependent on colonization by many organisms, particularly insects that form highly diverse predator assemblages. We conducted mesocosm experiments with naturally-colonizing populations of aquatic beetles to assess how prey (zooplankton) abundances influenced colonization and assemblages of natural populations of aquatic beetles.(...)

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2 June 2017

Changes in nutrient concentrations of leaves and roots in response to global change factors [Global Change Biology]

Keywords : CO2, drought, ecological stoichiometry, N deposition, N:P, nitrogen, phosphorus

Global change impacts on biogeochemical cycles have been widely studied, but our understanding of whether the responses of plant elemental composition to global change drivers differ between above- and belowground plant organs remains incomplete. We conducted a meta-analysis of 201 reports including 1,687 observations of studies that have analyzed simultaneously N and P concentrations changes in leaves and roots in the same plants in response to drought, elevated [CO2], and N and P fertilization around the world, and contrasted the results within those obtained with a general database (838 reports and 14,772 observations) that analyzed the changes in N and P concentrations in leaves and/or roots of plants submitted to the commented global change drivers.(...)

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2 June 2017

Introduced bullfrogs are associated with increased Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and reduced occurrence of Korean treefrogs [PLOS One]

Subject Areas : frogs, fungal pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, rice, South Korea, amphibians, conservation genetics, invasive species

Bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, have been described as major vectors of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bd is widespread throughout the range of amphibians yet varies considerably within and among populations in prevalence and host impact. In our study, the presence of L. catesbeianus is correlated with a 2.5 increase in Bd prevalence in treefrogs, and the endangered Dryophytes suweonensis displays a significantly higher Bd prevalence than the more abundant D. japonicus for the 37 sites surveyed.(...)

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