Accueil > Communication > Newsletter scientifique > Publications

Publications RSS des Publications

Page(s) : < | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | ... | 156 |

27 avril 2017

The credibility crisis in research : Can economics tools help ? [PLOS Biology]

Keywords : experimental economics, economics, labor economics, peer review, randomized controlled trials, behavior, health economics, mathematical modeling

The issue of nonreplicable evidence has attracted considerable attention across biomedical and other sciences. This concern is accompanied by an increasing interest in reforming research incentives and practices. How to optimally perform these reforms is a scientific problem in itself, and economics has several scientific methods that can help evaluate research reforms. Here, we review these methods and show their potential. Prominent among them are mathematical modeling and laboratory experiments that constitute affordable ways to approximate the effects of policies with wide-ranging implications.

Lire la suite

27 avril 2017

Species ecological similarity modulates the importance of colonization history for adaptive radiation [Evolution]

Keywords : adaptive radiation, colonization history, fitness difference, niche difference

Adaptive radiation is an important evolutionary process, through which a single ancestral lineage rapidly gives rise to multiple newly formed lineages that specialize in different niches. In the first-arrival hypothesis, David Lack emphasized the importance of species colonization history for adaptive radiation, suggesting that the earlier arrival of a diversifying species would allow it to radiate to a greater extent. Here, we report on the first rigorous experimental test of this hypothesis, using the rapidly evolving bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and six different bacterial competitors.(...)

Lire la suite

26 avril 2017

Drivers and interrelationships among multiple dimensions of rarity for freshwater fishes [Ecography]

Species can be rare or common in three different dimensions : geographic range size, habitat breadth, and local abundance. Understanding drivers of rarity are not only fundamentally interesting ; it is also pertinent for their conservation. We addressed this challenge by analyzing the rarity of 291 native freshwater fishes occurring in ca 3500 independent stream reaches that span a broad environmental gradient across continental USA. Using phylogenetic regression and path analysis, we examined the concordance among the three rarity dimensions, and identified possible mechanisms by which species life-history, habitat affinities, and biogeography drive variation in rarity.(...)

Lire la suite

26 avril 2017

Evolutionary biology needs wild microbiomes [Frontiers in Microbiology]

Keywords : gut microbiome, field biology, evolution, ornithology, host-associated microbiota

he microbiome is a vital component to the evolution of a host and much of what we know about the microbiome derives from studies on humans and captive animals. But captivity alters the microbiome and mammals have unique biological adaptations that affect their microbiomes (e.g., milk). Birds represent over 30% of known tetrapod diversity and possess their own suite of adaptations relevant to the microbiome. In a previous study, we showed that 59 species of birds displayed immense variation in their microbiomes and host (bird) taxonomy and ecology were most correlated with the gut microbiome. In this Frontiers Focused Review, I put those results in a broader context by discussing how collecting and analyzing wild microbiomes contributes to the main goals of evolutionary biology and the specific ways that birds are unique microbial hosts. Finally, I outline some of the methodological considerations for adding microbiome sampling to the research of wild animals and urge researchers to do so. To truly understand the evolution of a host, we need to understand the millions of microorganisms that inhabit it as well : evolutionary biology needs wild microbiomes.

Lire la suite

26 avril 2017

Genomic analyses reveal the influence of geographic origin, migration, and hybridization on modern dog breed development [Cell Reports]

Keywords : canine, domestication, population, migration, morphology, behavior, admixture

There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

Lire la suite

Page(s) : < | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | ... | 156 |