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15 octobre 2018

Intraspecific variation in lizard heat tolerance alters estimates of climate impact [Journal of Animal Ecology]

Keywords : climate change, critical thermal maxima, ectotherm, physiology, plasticity, thermal biology

1.Research addressing the effects of global warming on the distribution and persistence of species generally assumes that population variation in thermal tolerance is spatially constant or overridden by interspecific variation. Typically, this rationale is implicit in sourcing one critical thermal maximum (CTmax) population estimate per species to model spatiotemporal cross‐taxa variation in heat tolerance. Theory suggests that such an approach could result in biased or imprecise estimates and forecasts of impact from climate warming, but limited empirical evidence in support of those expectations exists.
2.We experimentally quantify the magnitude of intraspecific variation in CTmax among lizard populations, and the extent to which incorporating such variability can alter estimates of climate impact through a biophysical model. To do so, we measured CTmax 59 populations of 15 Iberian lizard species (304 individuals).(...)

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12 octobre 2018

The phylogenomics of evolving virus virulence [Nature Reviews Genetics]

How virulence evolves after a virus jumps to a new host species is central to disease emergence. Our current understanding of virulence evolution is based on insights drawn from two perspectives that have developed largely independently : long-standing evolutionary theory based on limited real data examples that often lack a genomic basis, and experimental studies of virulence-determining mutations using cell culture or animal models. A more comprehensive understanding of virulence mutations and their evolution can be achieved by bridging the gap between these two research pathways through the phylogenomic analysis of virus genome sequence data as a guide to experimental study.

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12 octobre 2018

Coexistence theory and the frequency-dependence of priority effects [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Priority effects are commonly used to describe a broad suite of phenomena capturing the influence of species arrival order on the diversity, composition and function of ecological communities. Several studies have suggested reframing priority effects around the stabilizing and equalizing concepts of coexistence theory. We show that the only compatible priority effects are those characterized by positive frequency-dependence, irrespective of whether they emerge in equilibrium or non-equilibrium systems.

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12 octobre 2018

Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives [Nature]

The Paris Agreement promotes forest management as a pathway towards halting climate warming through the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, the climate benefits from carbon sequestration through forest management may be reinforced, counteracted or even offset by concurrent management-induced changes in surface albedo, land-surface roughness, emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, transpiration and sensible heat flux. Consequently, forest management could offset CO2 emissions without halting global temperature rise. It therefore remains to be confirmed whether commonly proposed sustainable European forest-management portfolios would comply with the Paris Agreement—that is, whether they can reduce the growth rate of atmospheric CO2, reduce the radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, and neither increase the near-surface air temperature nor decrease precipitation by the end of the twenty-first century.(...)

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11 octobre 2018

The complementary role of lentic and lotic habitats for Arctic grayling in a complex stream‐lake network in Arctic Alaska [Ecology of Freshwater Fish]

Keywords : Arctic Coastal Plain, Arctic grayling, habitat connectivity, habitat use, movement, stream‐lake network

Lakes can be important to stream dwelling fishes, yet how individuals exploit habitat heterogeneity across complex stream‐lake networks is poorly understood. Furthermore, despite growing awareness that intermittent streams are widely used by fish, studies documenting the use of seasonally accessible lakes remain scarce. We studied Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in a small seasonally flowing (June–October) stream‐lake network in Alaska using PIT telemetry. Overall, 70% of fish visited two lakes, 8% used a single lake, and 22% used only stream reaches. We identified five distinct behavioural patterns that differed in dominant macrohabitat used (deep lake, shallow lake or stream reaches), entry day into the network and mobility. Some juvenile fish spent the entire summer in a shallow seasonally frozen lake (average 71 days), whereas others demonstrated prospecting behaviour and only entered the stream channel briefly in September.(...)

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