Accueil > Communication > Newsletter scientifique > Publications

Publications RSS des Publications

Page(s) : < | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | ... | 99 |

21 septembre 2016

Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss [PNAS]

Keywords : extinction, feral cat, island, invasive mammal, trophic cascade

Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions—58% of these groups’ contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as “possibly extinct.” Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall.(...)

Lire la suite

20 septembre 2016

Mapping climatic mechanisms likely to favour the emergence of novel communities [Nature Climate Change]

Climatic conditions are changing at different rates and in different directions potentially causing the emergence of novel species assemblages. Here we identify areas where recent (1901–2013) changes in temperature and precipitation are likely to be producing novel species assemblages through three distinct mechanisms : emergence of novel climatic combinations, rapid displacement of climatic isoclines and local divergences between temperature and precipitation vectors. Novel climates appear in the tropics, while displacement is faster at higher latitudes and divergence is high in the subtropics and mountainous regions.(...)

Lire la suite

20 septembre 2016

Differential aphid toxicity to ladybeetles is not a function of host plant or facultative bacterial symbionts [Functional Ecology]

Keywords : defence, facultative bacterial symbionts, polyphagy, sequestration

1.Herbivores often defend themselves from predation by transmitting toxic plant-produced chemicals to their enemies. Polyphagous herbivores sometimes exhibit differential toxicity when found on various host plant species, which is generally assumed to reflect variation in plant chemistry.
2.Here, however, we provide evidence that host-associated herbivore lineages can intrinsically differ in their toxic properties. Lineages of Aphis craccivora originating from black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) are unsuitable food for the ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis, resulting in death of both larvae and adults, whereas aphid lineages originating from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) support larval development and adult reproduction. We show that locust-origin aphids remain toxic and alfalfa-origin aphids remain non-toxic when reared on any of three legume plants (fava, alfalfa or locust).(...)

Lire la suite

19 septembre 2016

Consensus and experience trump leadership, suppressing individual personality during social foraging [Science Advances]

Keywords : consensus, coordination, self-organization, predation risk, refuge use, conformity, leadership, personality, boldness

Whether individual behavior in social settings correlates with behavior when individuals are alone is a fundamental question in collective behavior. However, evidence for whether behavior correlates across asocial and social settings is mixed, and no study has linked observed trends with underlying mechanisms. Consistent differences between individuals in boldness, which describes willingness to accept reward over risk, are likely to be under strong selection pressure. By testing three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a risky foraging task alone and repeatedly in shoals, we demonstrate that the expression of boldness in groups is context-specific.(...)

Lire la suite

17 septembre 2016

Predicting nutrient excretion of aquatic animals with metabolic ecology and ecological stoichiometry : A global synthesis [Ecology]

Keywords : animals, biogeochemistry, ecosystems, freshwater, global, global studies, lakes/ponds, limnology/hydrology, marine, physiological ecology, reservoirs, rivers/streams

The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES) are both prominent frameworks for understanding energy and nutrient budgets of organisms. We tested their separate and joint power to predict nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion rates of ectothermic aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate animals (10,534 observations worldwide). MTE variables (body size, temperature) performed better than ES variables (trophic guild, vertebrate classification, body N:P) in predicting excretion rates, but the best models included variables from both frameworks.(...)

Lire la suite

Page(s) : < | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | ... | 99 |