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11 avril 2018

The evolution of immunity in relation to colonization and migration [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Keywords : evolutionary biology, evolutionary ecology, molecular evolution

Colonization and migration have a crucial effect on patterns of biodiversity, with disease predicted to play an important role in these processes. However, evidence of the effect of pathogens on broad patterns of colonization and migration is limited. Here, using phylogenetic analyses of 1,311 species of Afro-Palaearctic songbirds, we show that colonization events from regions of high (sub-Saharan Africa) to low (the Palaearctic) pathogen diversity were up to 20 times more frequent than the reverse, and that migration has evolved 3 times more frequently from African- as opposed to Palaearctic-resident species.(...)

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11 avril 2018

Estimating intraspecific genetic diversity from community DNA metabarcoding data [PeerJ]

Keywords : biogeography, bioinformatics, molecular biology, freshwater biology

DNA metabarcoding is used to generate species composition data for entire communities. However, sequencing errors in high-throughput sequencing instruments are fairly common, usually requiring reads to be clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), losing information on intraspecific diversity in the process. While Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) haplotype information is limited in resolving intraspecific diversity it is nevertheless often useful e.g. in a phylogeographic context, helping to formulate hypotheses on taxon distribution and dispersal.(...)

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11 avril 2018

Revealing hidden insect–fungus interactions ; moderately specialized, modular and anti-nested detritivore networks [Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences]

Keywords : weighted networks, nestedness, spore dispersal, dead wood, plant pathogenic fungi, symbiont fungi

Ecological networks are composed of interacting communities that influence ecosystem structure and function. Fungi are the driving force for ecosystem processes such as decomposition and carbon sequestration in terrestrial habitats, and are strongly influenced by interactions with invertebrates. Yet, interactions in detritivore communities have rarely been considered from a network perspective. In the present study, we analyse the interaction networks between three functional guilds of fungi and insects sampled from dead wood. Using DNA metabarcoding to identify fungi, we reveal a diversity of interactions differing in specificity in the detritivore networks, involving three guilds of fungi.(...)

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6 avril 2018

Plastic response of four maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) families to controlled soil water deficit [Annals of Forest Science]

Sara Marin

Separating the internal (ontogenetic) and external (environmental) components of maritime pine development during controlled soil water deficit helps to highlight the plastic response. The adjusted measurements reveal significant differences between families for their plastic response for several physiology and growth traits.(...)

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6 avril 2018

The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses [Nature]

Keywords : molecular evolution, viral evolution

Our understanding of the diversity and evolution of vertebrate RNA viruses is largely limited to those found in mammalian and avian hosts and associated with overt disease. Here, using a large-scale meta-transcriptomic approach, we discover 214 vertebrate-associated viruses in reptiles, amphibians, lungfish, ray-finned fish, cartilaginous fish and jawless fish. The newly discovered viruses appear in every family or genus of RNA virus associated with vertebrate infection, including those containing human pathogens such as influenza virus, the Arenaviridae and Filoviridae families, and have branching orders that broadly reflected the phylogenetic history of their hosts.(...)

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