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30 mars 2018

Effects of multiple sources of genetic drift on pathogen variation within hosts [PLOS Biology]

Subject areas : moths and butterflies, genetic drift, pathogens, population genetics, viral replication, epizootics, larvae, genetics of disease

Changes in pathogen genetic variation within hosts alter the severity and spread of infectious diseases, with important implications for clinical disease and public health. Genetic drift may play a strong role in shaping pathogen variation, but analyses of drift in pathogens have oversimplified pathogen population dynamics, either by considering dynamics only at a single scale—such as within hosts or between hosts—or by making drastic simplifying assumptions, for example, that host immune systems can be ignored or that transmission bottlenecks are complete. Moreover, previous studies have used genetic data to infer the strength of genetic drift, whereas we test whether the genetic drift imposed by pathogen population processes can be used to explain genetic data.(...)

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30 mars 2018

The coming of age of EvoMPMI : evolutionary molecular plant–microbe interactions across multiple timescales [Current Opinion in Plant Biology]

Plant–microbe interactions are great model systems to study co-evolutionary dynamics across multiple timescales. However, mechanistic research on plant–microbe interactions has often been conducted with little consideration of evolutionary concepts and methods. Conversely, evolutionary research has rarely integrated the range of mechanisms and models from the molecular plant–microbe interactions field. In recent years, the incipient field of evolutionary molecular plant–microbe interactions (EvoMPMI) has emerged to bridge this gap. Here, we report on some of the recent advances in EvoMPMI. In particular, we highlight new systems to study microbe interactions with early diverging land plants, and new findings from studies of adaptive evolution in pathogens and plants. By linking mechanistic and evolutionary research, EvoMPMI promises to expand our understanding of plant–microbe interactions.

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30 mars 2018

Spatial mismatch in morphological, ecological and phylogenetic diversity, in historical and contemporary European freshwater fish faunas [Ecography]

Lucie Kuczynski, Jessica Côte, Sébastien Brosse, Gaël Grenouillet

Biodiversity encompasses multiple facets, among which taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic aspects are the most often considered. Understanding how those diversity facets are distributed and what are their determinants has become a central concern in the current context of biodiversity crisis, but such multi‐faceted measures over large geographical areas are still pending. Here, we measured the congruence between the biogeographical patterns of freshwater fish morphological, ecological and phylogenetic diversity across Europe and identified the natural and anthropogenic drivers shaping those patterns. Based on freshwater fish occurrence records in 290 European river catchments, we computed richness and evenness for morphological, ecological and phylogenetic diversity using standardized effect sizes for each diversity index. We then used linear models including climatic, geo‐morphological, biotic and human‐related factors to determine the key drivers shaping freshwater fish biodiversity patterns across Europe.(...)

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30 mars 2018

Reconciling biodiversity and carbon stock conservation in an Afrotropical forest landscape [Science Advances]

Protecting aboveground carbon stocks in tropical forests is essential for mitigating global climate change and is assumed to simultaneously conserve biodiversity. Although the relationship between tree diversity and carbon stocks is generally positive, the relationship remains unclear for consumers or decomposers. We assessed this relationship for multiple trophic levels across the tree of life (10 organismal groups, 3 kingdoms) in lowland rainforests of the Congo Basin. Comparisons across regrowth and old-growth forests evinced the expected positive relationship for trees, but not for other organismal groups. Moreover, differences in species composition between forests increased with difference in carbon stock.(...)

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29 mars 2018

Altered access to beneficial mutations slows adaptation and biases fixed mutations in diploids [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Keywords : evolutionary genetics, experimental evolution, polyploidy

Ploidy varies considerably in nature. However, our understanding of the impact of ploidy on adaptation is incomplete. Many microbial evolution experiments characterize adaptation in haploid organisms, but few focus on diploid organisms. Here, we perform a 4,000-generation evolution experiment using diploid strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the rate of adaptation and spectrum of beneficial mutations are influenced by ploidy.(...)

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