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9 octobre 2017

Toxic toad invasion of Wallacea : A biodiversity hotspot characterized by extraordinary endemism [Global Change Biology]

Invasions of poisonous species can cause rapid population declines among native fauna because predators are naïve and often vulnerable to these toxins. The recent invasion of Madagascar by the poisonous Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, has sparked international attention (Kolby, 2014) as well as research and conservation efforts to predict the climate suitability of Madagascar for the invasive toads (Pearson, 2015 ; Vences et al., 2017), pinpoint the origin of the invasive lineage (Vences et al., 2017 ; Wogan, Stuart, Iskandar, & McGuire, 2016), determining the toads’ distribution, and educating local communities (Andreone, 2014). While the invasion in Madagascar has received much attention, an invasion of this same toad species on the islands of Wallacea in eastern Indonesia is ongoing but virtually unrecognized.(...)

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9 octobre 2017

Bottom-up control of parasites [Ecosphere]

Keywords : coastal wetlands, disease ecology, eutrophication, fertilizer, host traits, intertidal

Parasitism is a fundamental ecological interaction. Yet we understand relatively little about the ecological role of parasites compared to the role of free-living organisms. Bottom-up theory predicts that resource enhancement will increase the abundance and biomass of free-living organisms. Similarly, parasite abundance and biomass should increase in an ecosystem with resource enhancement. We tested this hypothesis in a landscape-level experiment in which salt marshes (60,000 m2 each) received elevated nutrient concentrations via flooding tidal waters for 11 yr to mimic eutrophication.(...)

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9 octobre 2017

DNA metabarcoding and morphological macroinvertebrate metrics reveal the same changes in boreal watersheds across an environmental gradient [Scientific Reports]

Keywords : DNA sequencing, environmental impact, forestry, freshwater ecology, Next-generation sequencing

Cost-effective, ecologically relevant, sensitive, and standardized indicators are requisites of biomonitoring. DNA metabarcoding of macroinvertebrate communities is a potentially transformative biomonitoring technique that can reduce cost and time constraints while providing information-rich, high resolution taxonomic data for the assessment of watershed condition. Here, we assess the utility of DNA metabarcoding to provide aquatic indicator data for evaluation of forested watershed condition across Canadian eastern boreal watersheds, subject to natural variation and low-intensity harvest management. (...)

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6 octobre 2017

A worldwide survey of neonicotinoids in honey [Science]

Subjects : chemistry, ecology

Growing evidence for global pollinator decline is causing concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services maintenance. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been identified or suspected as a key factor responsible for this decline. We assessed the global exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids by analyzing 198 honey samples from across the world. We found at least one of five tested compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in 75% of all samples, 45% of samples contained two or more of these compounds, and 10% contained four or five.(...)

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6 octobre 2017

The influence of environmental factors on the upstream movements of rheophilic cyprinids according to their position in a river basin [Ecology of Freshwater Fish]

Keywords : behaviour, fish pass, holobiotic potamodromous, movement, spawning

Throughout their lives, fish accomplish frequent movements between functional habitats that are often triggered by environmental signals. We aimed to determine if rheophilic cyprinids (barbel, Barbus barbus and chub Squalius cephalus), living in different places of the same river basin, may develop similar movement periodicities and react identically to environmental cues to carry out their spawning migration. We used the capture data of three modern fish passes that were monitored continuously during three consecutive years (2010 to 2012) in three rivers of the Meuse basin in Belgium. We captured 418 individuals at adult stage, and the capture number per species was greater (80%) in spring (during the spawning migration period).(...)

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