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1er novembre 2016

Amplified plant turnover in response to climate change forecast by Late Quaternary records [Nature Climate Change / Letter]

Subject terms : biogeography, climate-change ecology

Conservation decisions are informed by twenty-first-century climate impact projections that typically predict high extinction risk. Conversely, the palaeorecord shows strong sensitivity of species abundances and distributions to past climate changes, but few clear instances of extinctions attributable to rising temperatures. However, few studies have incorporated palaeoecological data into projections of future distributions. Here we project changes in abundance and conservation status under a climate warming scenario for 187 European and North American plant taxa using niche-based models calibrated against taxa–climate relationships for the past 21,000 years. (...)

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1er novembre 2016

Plants capable of selfing are more likely to become naturalized [Nature Communications]

Keywords : invasive species, macroecology, plant ecology

Many plant species have established self-sustaining populations outside their natural range because of human activities. Plants with selfing ability should be more likely to establish outside their historical range because they can reproduce from a single individual when mates or pollinators are not available. Here, we compile a global breeding-system database of 1,752 angiosperm species and use phylogenetic generalized linear models and path analyses to test relationships between selfing ability, life history, native range size and global naturalization status. Selfing ability is associated with annual or biennial life history and a large native range, which both positively correlate with the probability of naturalization.(...)

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1er novembre 2016

First genealogy for a wild marine fish population reveals multigenerational philopatry [PNAS]

Benoît Pujol

Natal philopatry, the return of individuals to their natal area for reproduction, has advantages and disadvantages for animal populations. Natal philopatry may generate local genetic adaptation, but it may also increase the probability of inbreeding that can compromise persistence. Although natal philopatry is well documented in anadromous fishes, marine fish may also return to their birth site to spawn. How philopatry shapes wild fish populations is, however, unclear because it requires constructing multigenerational pedigrees that are currently lacking for marine fishes. Here we present the first multigenerational pedigree for a marine fish population by repeatedly genotyping all individuals in a population of the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island (Papua New Guinea) during a 10-y period. Based on 2927 individuals, our pedigree analysis revealed that longitudinal philopatry was recurrent over five generations.(...)

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28 octobre 2016

Biology and evolution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in the light of genomicsBiology and evolution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in the light of genomics [New Phytologist / Tansley insight]

Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), bioinformatics, evolution, genomics, host plants

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association.(...)

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28 octobre 2016

Complete mitochondrial genomes of living and extinct pigeons revise the timing of the columbiform radiation [BMC Evolutionary Biology]

Keywords : columbidae, ancient DNA, time calibrated phylogeny, Pezophaps solitaria, Raphus cucullatus, passenger pigeon

Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the nature and timing of the group’s evolutionary radiation remains poorly resolved, despite recent advances in DNA sequencing and assembly and the growing database of pigeon mitochondrial genomes. One challenge has been to generate comparative data from the large number of extinct pigeon lineages, some of which are morphologically unique and therefore difficult to place in a phylogenetic context.(...)

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