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22 janvier 2018

Intergenerational equity can help to prevent climate change and extinction [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Intergenerational rights to a healthy environment are protected by the constitutions of 75% of the world’s nations. These explicit commitments and similar, ancient principles of sovereign public trust are often overlooked but, if enforced, they offer sustainable protection for the biosphere.

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22 janvier 2018

Why does freshwater fish species richness differ between Pacific and Atlantic drainages of the Americas ? [Journal of Biogeography]

Keywords : America, catchment area, channel gradient, climate, endemism, freshwater fish, geomorphology, glaciation, river length ; species richness

To identify the contributions of geomorphological and hydrological/climatic factors to differences in total and endemic freshwater fish species richness between Atlantic and Pacific drainages.(...)

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19 janvier 2018

The contribution of predators and scavengers to human well-being [Nature Ecology & Evolution]

Keywords : conservation biology, ecosystem services, environmental economics, socioeconomic scenarios

Predators and scavengers are frequently persecuted for their negative effects on property, livestock and human life. Research has shown that these species play important regulatory roles in intact ecosystems including regulating herbivore and mesopredator populations that in turn affect floral, soil and hydrological systems. Yet predators and scavengers receive surprisingly little recognition for their benefits to humans in the landscapes they share. We review these benefits, highlighting the most recent studies that have documented their positive effects across a range of environments.(...)

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19 janvier 2018

A global atlas of the dominant bacteria found in soil [Science]

The immense diversity of soil bacterial communities has stymied efforts to characterize individual taxa and document their global distributions. We analyzed soils from 237 locations across six continents and found that only 2% of bacterial phylotypes ( 500 phylotypes) consistently accounted for almost half of the soil bacterial communities worldwide. Despite the overwhelming diversity of bacterial communities, relatively few bacterial taxa are abundant in soils globally. We clustered these dominant taxa into ecological groups to build the first global atlas of soil bacterial taxa. Our study narrows down the immense number of bacterial taxa to a “most wanted” list that will be fruitful targets for genomic and cultivation-based efforts aimed at improving our understanding of soil microbes and their contributions to ecosystem functioning.

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19 janvier 2018

Sexual signals reveal males’ oxidative stress defenses : testing this hypothesis in an invertebrate [Functional Ecology]

Keywords : male condition, handicap principle, oxidative stress, antioxidants, damselflies, immunocompetence, sexual selection, Hetaerina americana

1.The hypothesis that sexual traits reveal the oxidative stress resistance of their bearers has been widely tested in vertebrates but remains unexplored in invertebrates. Here, Hetaerina americana was used to test whether oxidative stress defenses are advertised by male wing spot size and color (a male sexual trait). To this end we asked (1) whether oxidative stress reduced survival, (2) whether wing spot size revealed males’ antioxidant defenses, and (3) how wing spot size and color were affected by oxidative stress.(...)

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