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28 octobre 2016

Biology and evolution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in the light of genomicsBiology and evolution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in the light of genomics [New Phytologist / Tansley insight]

Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), bioinformatics, evolution, genomics, host plants

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association.(...)

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28 octobre 2016

Complete mitochondrial genomes of living and extinct pigeons revise the timing of the columbiform radiation [BMC Evolutionary Biology]

Keywords : columbidae, ancient DNA, time calibrated phylogeny, Pezophaps solitaria, Raphus cucullatus, passenger pigeon

Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the nature and timing of the group’s evolutionary radiation remains poorly resolved, despite recent advances in DNA sequencing and assembly and the growing database of pigeon mitochondrial genomes. One challenge has been to generate comparative data from the large number of extinct pigeon lineages, some of which are morphologically unique and therefore difficult to place in a phylogenetic context.(...)

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27 octobre 2016

A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura : Brachycephalidae) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura : Brachycephalidae) is described from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Nine specimens (eight adults and a juvenile) were collected from the leaf litter of montane forests 790–835 m above sea level (a.s.l.).(...)

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27 octobre 2016

Social costs enforce honesty of a dynamic signal of motivation [Royal Society Open Science]

Keywords : signalling, communication, colour, conventional signals, chameleons, physiological colour change

Understanding the processes that promote signal reliability may provide important insights into the evolution of diverse signalling strategies among species. The signals that animals use to communicate must comprise mechanisms that prohibit or punish dishonesty, and social costs of dishonesty have been demonstrated for several fixed morphological signals (e.g. colour badges of birds and wasps). The costs maintaining the honesty of dynamic signals, which are more flexible and potentially cheatable, are unknown. Using an experimental manipulation of the dynamic visual signals used by male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) during aggressive interactions, we tested the idea that the honesty of rapid colour change signals is maintained by social costs.(...)

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27 octobre 2016

Climatic warming destabilizes forest ant communities [Science Advances]

Keywords : climate change, community ecology, dynamical stability, experimental warming, temperature, species, interactions, ants, forest

How will ecological communities change in response to climate warming ? Direct effects of temperature and indirect cascading effects of species interactions are already altering the structure of local communities, but the dynamics of community change are still poorly understood. We explore the cumulative effects of warming on the dynamics and turnover of forest ant communities that were warmed as part of a 5-year climate manipulation experiment at two sites in eastern North America.(...)

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