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19 janvier 2018

A Physiological Perspective on Fisheries-Induced Evolution [Evolutionary Applications]

There is increasing evidence that intense fishing pressure is not only depleting fish stocks but also causing evolutionary changes to fish populations. In particular, body size and fecundity in wild fish populations may be altered in response to the high and often size-selective mortality exerted by fisheries. While these effects can have serious consequences for the viability of fish populations, there are also a range of traits not directly related to body size which could also affect susceptibility to capture by fishing gears – and therefore fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) – but which have to date been ignored.(...)

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19 janvier 2018

Maternal, dominance and additive genetic effects in Nile tilapia ; influence on growth, fillet yield and body size traits [Heredity]

Keywords : animal breeding, genetic interaction, quantitative trait

There are only few studies of dominance effects in non-inbred aquaculture species, since commonly used mating designs often have low power to separate dominance, maternal and common environmental effects. Here, a factorial design with reciprocal cross, common rearing of eggs and subsequent lifecycle stages and pedigree assignment using DNA microsatellites was used to separate these effects and estimate dominance (d2) and maternal (m2) ratios in Nile tilapia for six commercial traits.(...)

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19 janvier 2018

Current Spring Warming as a Driver of Selection on Reproductive Timing in a Wild Passerine [Journal of Animal Ecology]

Pascal marrot

1.Evolutionary adaptation as a response to climate change is expected for fitness-related traits affected by climate and exhibiting genetic variance. Although the relationship between warmer spring temperature and earlier timing of reproduction is well documented, quantifications and predictions of the impact of global warming on natural selection acting on phenology in wild populations remain rare. If global warming affects fitness in a similar way across individuals within a population, or if fitness consequences are independent of phenotypic variation in key-adaptive traits, then no evolutionary response is expected for these traits.
2.Here we quantified the selection pressures acting on laying date during a 24-year monitoring of blue tits in southern Mediterranean France, a hot spot of climate warming. We explored the temporal fluctuation in annual selection gradients and we determined its temperature-related drivers.(...)

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18 janvier 2018

Evidence for dispersal syndromes in freshwater fishes [Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences]

Keywords : dispersal ability, life-history strategies, ecological specialization, co-adaptation, evolutionary trade-offs, repeatability

Dispersal is a fundamental process defining the distribution of organisms and has long been a topic of inquiry in ecology and evolution. Emerging research points to an interdependency of dispersal with a diverse suite of traits in terrestrial organisms, however the extent to which such dispersal syndromes exist in freshwater species remains uncertain. Here, we test whether dispersal in freshwater fishes (1) is a fixed property of species, and (2) correlates with life-history, morphological, ecological and behavioural traits, using a global dataset of dispersal distances collected from the literature encompassing 116 riverine species and 196 locations.(...)

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17 janvier 2018

Immunogenetic novelty confers a selective advantage in host–pathogen coevolution [PNAS]

Keywords : host–pathogen coevolution, Red Queen coevolution, major histocompatibility complex, Poecilia reticulata, frequency-dependent selection

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is crucial to the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and is among the most polymorphic gene families known. Its high diversity is usually attributed to selection imposed by fast-evolving pathogens. Pathogens are thought to evolve to escape recognition by common immune alleles, and, hence, novel MHC alleles, introduced through mutation, recombination, or gene flow, are predicted to give hosts superior resistance. Although this theoretical prediction underpins host–pathogen “Red Queen” coevolution, it has not been demonstrated in the context of natural MHC diversity. Here, we experimentally tested whether novel MHC variants (both alleles and functional “supertypes”) increased resistance of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to a common ectoparasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli).(...)

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