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3 novembre 2016

Future C loss in mid-latitude mineral soils : climate change exceeds land use mitigation potential in France [Scientific Reports]

Many studies have highlighted significant interactions between soil C reservoir dynamics and global climate and environmental change. However, in order to estimate the future soil organic carbon sequestration potential and related ecosystem services well, more spatially detailed predictions are needed. The present study made detailed predictions of future spatial evolution (at 250 m resolution) of topsoil SOC driven by climate change and land use change for France up to the year 2100 by taking interactions between climate, land use and soil type into account. (...)

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3 novembre 2016

Tetrapod limb and sarcopterygian fin regeneration share a core genetic programme [Nature Communications]

Keywords : evolutionary developmental biology, regeneration, transcriptomics

Salamanders are the only living tetrapods capable of fully regenerating limbs. The discovery of salamander lineage-specific genes (LSGs) expressed during limb regeneration suggests that this capacity is a salamander novelty. Conversely, recent paleontological evidence supports a deeper evolutionary origin, before the occurrence of salamanders in the fossil record. Here we show that lungfishes, the sister group of tetrapods, regenerate their fins through morphological steps equivalent to those seen in salamanders.(...)

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3 novembre 2016

Origins of Biodiversity [PLOS Biology]

Subject areas : biodiversity, species extinction, phylogenetic analysis, phylogeography, speciation, species diversity, animal phylogenetics, vertebrates

Biodiversity today is huge, and it has a long history. Identifying rules for the heterogeneity of modern biodiversity—the high to low species richness of different clades—has been hard. There are measurable biodiversity differences between land and sea and between the tropics and temperate-polar regions. Some analyses suggest that the net age of a clade can determine its extinction risk, but this is equivocal. New work shows that, through geological time, clades pass through different diversification regimes, and those regimes constrain the balance of tree size and the nature of branching events.

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3 novembre 2016

Lizards paid a greater opportunity cost to thermoregulate in a less heterogeneous environment [Functional Ecology]

Keywords : cost-benefit model, climate change, ectotherm, microclimate, energy budget, survival, performance, null model

1.The theory of thermoregulation has developed slowly, hampering efforts to predict how individuals can buffer climate change through behaviour. Mixed results of field and laboratory experiments underscore the need to test hypotheses about thermoregulation explicitly, while measuring costs and benefits in different thermal landscapes.
2.We simulated body temperature and energy expenditure of a virtual lizard that either thermoregulates optimally or thermoconforms in a landscape of either low or high quality (one or four basking sites, respectively). We then compare the predicted values in each landscape with the observed values for real lizards in experimental arenas.(...)

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2 novembre 2016

Global meta-analysis of native and nonindigenous trophic traits in aquatic ecosystems [Global Change Biology]

Keywords : biological invasions, comparative studies, effect size, freshwater, invasive species, marine, range expansion, range shift

Ecologists have recently devoted their attention to the study of species traits and their role in the establishment and spread of nonindigenous species (NIS). However, research efforts have mostly focused on studies of terrestrial taxa, with lesser attention being dedicated to aquatic species. Aquatic habitats comprise of interconnected waterways, as well as exclusive introduction vectors that allow unparalleled artificial transport of species and their propagules. Consequently, species traits that commonly facilitate biological invasions in terrestrial systems may not be as represented in aquatic environments. We provide a global meta-analysis of studies conducted in both marine and freshwater habitats.(...)

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