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8 juin 2017

Biogeography of Amazon birds : rivers limit species composition, but not areas of endemism [Scientific Reports]

Keywords : biodiversity, biogeography, community ecology

Amazonian rivers are usually suggested as dispersal barriers, limiting biogeographic units. This is evident in a widely accepted Areas of Endemism (AoEs) hypothesis proposed for Amazonian birds. We empirically test this hypothesis based on quantitative analyses of species distribution. We compiled a database of bird species and subspecies distribution records, and used this dataset to identify AoEs through three different methods.(...)

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8 juin 2017

Mycelium-mediated transfer of water and nutrients stimulates bacterial activity in dry and oligotrophic environments [Nature Communications]

Keywords : ecosystem ecology, fungal ecology, soil microbiology

Fungal–bacterial interactions are highly diverse and contribute to many ecosystem processes. Their emergence under common environmental stress scenarios however, remains elusive. Here we use a synthetic microbial ecosystem based on the germination of Bacillus subtilis spores to examine whether fungal and fungal-like (oomycete) mycelia reduce bacterial water and nutrient stress in an otherwise dry and nutrient-poor microhabitat.(...)

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7 juin 2017

Toward a community ecology of landscapes : predicting multiple predator-prey interactions across geographic space [Ecology]

Keywords : food web modules, geospatial movement analysis, habitat domain, landscape of fear, multiple predator-prey interactions, predator consumptive effects, predator non-consumptive effects, predator hunting mode, spatial movement analysis, utilization distribution

Community ecology was traditionally an integrative science devoted to studying interactions between species and their abiotic environments in order to predict species’ geographic distributions and abundances. Yet for philosophical and methodological reasons it has become divided into two enterprises : one devoted to local experimentation on species interactions to predict community dynamics ; the other devoted to statistical analyses of abiotic and biotic information to describe geographic distribution. Our goal here is to instigate thinking about ways to reconnect the two enterprises and thereby return to a tradition to do integrative science. We focus specifically on the community ecology of predators and prey, which is ripe for integration. This is because there is active, simultaneous interest in experimentally resolving the nature and strength of predator-prey interactions as well as explaining pattern across landscapes and seascapes. We begin by describing a conceptual theory rooted in classical analyses of non-spatial food web modules used to predict species interactions. We show how such modules can be extended to consideration of spatial context using the concept of habitat domain.(...)

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7 juin 2017

An Amazonian rainforest and its fragments as a laboratory of global change [Biological Reviews]

Keywords : Amazonia, biodiversity, carbon storage, climate change, drought, ecosystem services, edge effects, environmental synergisms, habitat fragmentation, nature reserves

We synthesize findings from one of the world’s largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km2 in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation. The project has yielded a wealth of insights into the ecological and environmental changes in fragmented forests. For instance, many rainforest species are naturally rare and hence are either missing entirely from many fragments or so sparsely represented as to have little chance of long-term survival. Additionally, edge effects are a prominent driver of fragment dynamics, strongly affecting forest microclimate, tree mortality, carbon storage and a diversity of fauna.(...)

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7 juin 2017

Species’ traits as predictors of range shifts under contemporary climate change : A review and meta-analysis [Global Change Biology]

Keywords : body size, diet breadth, fecundity, global change, habitat breadth, life history, range expansion

A growing body of literature seeks to explain variation in range shifts using species’ ecological and life-history traits, with expectations that shifts should be greater in species with greater dispersal ability, reproductive potential, and ecological generalization. Despite strong theoretical support for species’ traits as predictors of range shifts, empirical evidence from contemporary range shift studies remains limited in extent and consensus. We conducted the first comprehensive review of species’ traits as predictors of range shifts, collecting results from 51 studies across multiple taxa encompassing over 11,000 species’ responses for 54 assemblages of taxonomically related species occurring together in space. We used studies of assemblages that directly compared geographic distributions sampled in the 20th century prior to climate change with resurveys of distributions after contemporary climate change and then tested whether species traits accounted for heterogeneity in range shifts.(...)

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