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18 octobre 2017

Émissions de méthane : les palourdes pourraient concurrencer les élevages bovins [Futura-Sciences]

L’étude des émissions de gaz à effet de serre nous en apprend presque tous les jours. Et aujourd’hui justement, des scientifiques révèlent que quelque 10 % des émissions de la mer Baltique seraient dues... aux palourdes  !

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17 octobre 2017

The partial success of the Water Framework Directive : a result of implementation rather than intent ? [The Freshwater Blog]

The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires all EU Member States to improve the quality of their surface and ground waters to ‘good’ ecological and chemical status or potential. However, despite some positive progress since its adoption in 2000, nearly half of EU surface waters still do not reach good ecological status.
A recent study led by Dr Nick Voulvoulis, Professor in Environmental Technology at Imperial College’s Centre for Environmental Policy, investigated why the ‘great expectations’ that came with the WFD have not yet been fully realised.

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17 octobre 2017

Whales and dolphins have rich ’human-like’ cultures and societies [Phys]

Whales and dolphins (Cetaceans) live in tightly-knit social groups, have complex relationships, talk to each other and even have regional dialects - much like human societies.
A major new study, published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution, has linked the complexity of Cetacean culture and behaviour to the size of their brains.

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17 octobre 2017

An epigenetic key to unlock behavior change [Phys]

When it comes to behaviour, researchers have moved beyond the "nature versus nurture" debate. It’s understood that genes and environment both play a role. However, how they interact at a molecular level to shape behaviour is still unclear.
A new study sheds valuable light on this relationship. The paper, published today in PNAS, reveals how epigenetics - changes in gene expression that do not change DNA - interact with genes to shape different feeding behaviours in fruit flies. This research unlocks the molecular mechanism that leads "rover" flies to forage for food more than "sitter" flies. It is the first study of its kind to show a causal link between epigenetics, genetics and behaviour.

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13 octobre 2017

Tropical tree roots represent an underappreciated carbon pool [Phys]

Ask someone to draw a tree and s/he will invariably draw a trunk and branches—leaving the roots out of the picture. In a unique study of tropical tree roots at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute published in PLOS ONE, roots accounted for almost 30 percent of the total biomass of young trees. The authors hope that future estimates of carbon storage and water-use by tropical forests will include information on root biomass and architecture.

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